Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Christian View on Spirituality Free Online Research Papers The Bible gives a very different definition and view of spirituality. In 1 Corinthians 3:3 it tells us that for you are carnal minded still. For where there are envy, strife, and divisions among you, are you not carnal and behaving like mere men? To be carnal is to behave like men, thus its opposite (spirituality) is simply to behave like God. Spirituality is simply being godly, or possessing godliness. A fine working definition of spirituality says knowing God so I can please God. And, this is what godliness (spirituality) is all about. Paul makes this clear: If anyone thinks himself to be a prophet or spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things which I write to you are the commandments of the Lord (1 Cor. 14:37). Spirituality is forever tied to knowing God and doing Gods will. Lets break these ideas out. In our society, spirituality has come to mean so many different views. First, much of todays spirituality movement is certain no one source holds all truth. Second view is doing what you want, how you want, when you want. Now American spirituality really is seen as a do it yourself religion. People are practicing vision quests, nature hikes, or just about anything else any one wants to do. So Doing what you like and telling people it was a spiritual experience is what people are doing today. We often hear the word spi rituality used to signify that one has faith in a higher power. Spirituality as it is seen in Christianity is to believe in God. We believe that God loves us. We believe that Jesus died for us. We believe that Jesus rose from the death with all power in his hand. We believe that our rebellious attitudes and transgressions against God not only keep us from a real and personal relationship but from eternal salvation as well. Spirituality can do nothing; its believing in and worshipping a higher being. Spirituality as it relates to Christianity says believe on a merciful God that loves and offers us redemption in spite of, and because of, our sins. Therefore it makes a way for us to know His eternal grace without you having to do anything but believe that Truth. If we were to survey the contemporary scene today with no pretensions at being exhaustive, we would notice a renewed interest in traditional spiritual paths together with an almost confusing bunch of new developments. In recent years there has been a lot of interest in Christian spirituality, especially in its more contemplative aspects. It is this very aspect that people have had a more practical view than a theoretical orientation, and is to be found among lay people as well as priests and religious. What we are seeing in this widespread I believe, that is not good but is happening that is a Contemporary Christian Spirituality. This type of spirituality has become a growing effect on Christian spirituality for this new century, and these groups point to four major characteristics that spirituality would have: (1) the rediscovery and reevaluation of the riches of the Christian spiritual tradition, (2) a new psychological awareness born out of an encounter with depth psychology, (3) a living and loving contact at the level of practice with other spiritual paths, and (4) a new sense of closeness and reverence for the earth. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think it would be difficult to reach some kind of agreemen t about what is happening today and what the future might hold. In every one of these four areas we are faced with real serious problems if we do not address the issue. People of all walks of life felt compelled to ask themselves whether they, too, were being called to become contemplatives. What is needed, instead, is a genuinely interactive approach in which philosophy, theology and psychology all retain their distinctive natures and make their own contributions. Then the way is opened for an enriched Christian spirituality in which the life of prayer and the process of individuation, while viewed as distinct processes, are also seen as interpenetrating and vitally interacting in the one concrete psyche. These four problems can serve as examples of the kinds of challenges that exist in each of the four areas that are converging to create a Christian spirituality of the future. The monastic/communal dimension recognizes that Christian spirituality requires a relational expression. Even those called to the deepest kinds of solitude need some form of community for discernment, support, guidance and grounding. In the past, Christian mysticism was growing primarily in monasteries, and it was predicted that mysticism would be the future. This type of religion was in pursuit of a strong communion and connection the community. Contemplation is grounded in ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s instruction about prayer: Ã¢â¬Å"whenever you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward youÃ¢â¬ (Matthew 6:6). These key elements for contemplative practice, Secrecy, silence, solitude, and withdrawal we seek to encounter them to see the face of God in darkness, loneliness, and stillness. Here we move beyond the certainties of the mind into the paradox and ambiguity of unknowing. Many Christian contemplati ves and the practitioners of other contemplative paths have begun to see that the path of contemplation is the path of entering into altered or higher forms of consciousness. The transformation engages them and the community on how they relate to the world as a whole. So while many may be having a strong appeal to dismiss contemplative practice as a form of spiritual self-indulgence, in reality it is an essential component to maintaining healthy relationships: with God, with ourselves, and with one another. While everyone has a right to believe whatever they want to about God; and the right to believe not in God it is their chose. Those practicing religions which deny who Jesus is cannot be indwelt by God the Holy Spirit. The many physical, psychological, and social stressors that often accompany life-threatening diseases that an individual is facing with terminal illnesses Spirituality may be particularly important for them. In addition, the unpredictable nature of such illnesses may limit the effectiveness of traditional coping strategies. Understanding the relationship between spirituality and psychological well-being requires an understanding of the relationship between institutional religion and spirituality. They have said that religion and spirituality are somewhat the same but they are not and have important distinctions. Spirituality can exist both within and outside of a religious framework. People who say that they are spiritual may not be religious. Religion, on the other hand, denotes an organized system of beliefs, practices, and ways of worship. Now religion maybe a way to express our spirituality but religion is less on the spiritual aspect but more traditional has rituals and has soci al interaction. Ã¢â¬Å"Schizophrenia remains a debilitating, often chronic disease that can be associated with impairment in multiple domains of functioning (1). The concept of recovery (2) may be useful in caring for patients with schizophrenia, through its emphasis on personal achievement rather than symptom reductionÃ¢â¬ (Huguelet, Mohr, Borras, Gillieron, Brandt 2006). Looking from this view religion is defined in a broad sense as including both spirituality and religious is helpful for patients who maybe suffering with a disease. A study reported showed they examined the extent to which religion helped outpatients with schizophrenia to cope with their illness. The outcome they came up with was that religion is important for patients who have or suffer with a chronic psychotic illness and may not be that important for clinicians than in the general population. A patientÃ¢â¬â¢s religions practices and spirituality is what they use to get through hard times and is most often neglected by most doctors. In this article Spirituality and the Black Helping Tradition in Social Work they discussed spirituality practice with individuals, groups, and communities of African descent. Elmer P. Martin and Joanne M. Martin have published extensively in the field of social work, with a particular emphasis on the black family. Their focus on early black caregivers and social workers use of spirituality in their work with black people is a rich resource for the varying fields of mental health practice to understand the historical context of race and oppression in working with African Americans. So looking at that spirituality is broken up in so many levels and that was just a small piece of a big pie. When assessing spiritually it contains so many areas that people look at I guess when faced with issues. Here are some issues spirituality is used for, nature of the holy, actions of the holy, personal responsibility, rituals and practices, affective responses, vocation, community, grief, forgiveness , hope, and meaning. These areas take time to understand and some practice to learn how to use them effectively in the treatment process. Fortunately, there are religiously trained professionals who work with these complicated patient issues, and they are called chaplains. When a psychiatrist and chaplain work together to address the complexities of a patients religious/spiritual issues, the patient is better served, and treatment is optimized. Another study showed that during the six-month period of a person that was a recovering alcoholic they use spirituality as part of their sobriety including daily spiritual experiences, use of religious practices, forgiveness, positive use of religion for coping, and feelings of purpose in life. The main finding from another study called Religious Affiliation and Suicide Attempt was that those with some type of religious affiliations were less likely to have a history of suicide attempts, the best predictor of future suicide or attempts. Individuals with religious connections have reported to have less suicide attempts at the time of an evaluation. If the has a severity of depression, number of adverse life events, and severity of hopelessness they show less likely to commit suicide. The reason for the risk factor for suicidal acts to be less likely is, because it was found to be related to religion. Therefore, religion may provide a positive force that counteracts suicidal ideation in the face of depression, hopelessness, and stressful events. Having a religious commitment promotes social ties and reduces alienation. If you have a weaker family ties in religiously unaffiliated subjects, and family members are reported to be more likely to provide reliable emotional support, nurturance, and reassurance of worth. Having some type of spirituality as it relates to Christianity proves to be helpful in your everyday life. Spirituality is very much has a place in the world and is a method for learning to know God and our relationship to Him. Spiritual practices, such as spiritual healing, utilize the understanding and the power of the laws of Spirit. There are actually laws of Spirit that awaken man from material practices to the reality of God. What weÃ¢â¬â¢re discovering with our understanding of Spirituality is God, and that weÃ¢â¬â¢re always in SpiritÃ¢â¬â¢s presence, and weÃ¢â¬â¢re under His divine, beautiful, and powerful laws. If weÃ¢â¬â¢re not deceived by the so-called material or physical laws, and we realize weÃ¢â¬â¢re still under those spiritual laws, those spiritual laws reign right where we are physically. And so they have all say about whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on. And we can still govern ourselves according to manÃ¢â¬â¢s law because we are following GodÃ¢â¬â¢s law. In Closing, Spirituality should give you a perception to be grateful for even the small things are the grace and the beauty of God being expressed to us and they can be a really big help in times like these. And lastly the three foundational characteristics of spirituality are Faith, Hope and Love. Spirituality is easily identified in people who have a faith and belief in the power and presence of God in their lives. Their faith enables them to believe that God is helping them in their times of trouble, sorrow and pain. Faith is the belief that God will never abandon or forget you during your time of need. Spirituality is easily identified in people who have hope and trust in Gods mercy, wisdom and justice. Their hope enables them to let go and let God. Their hope enables them to hand over their sense of over responsibility, guilt, rescuing and enabling to Gods hands. Their hope enables them to take a tough love stance in order to get help for the troubled persons in their lives. Ho pe is reflected in the following prayer: Serenity Prayer, God, Grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference. Spirituality is easily identified in people who are active in showing love, concern and generosity to others. And in the end they are able to make a difference in peoples lives. References Austin, L. J. (2004). On Spirituality. Psychiatric News. Vol.39. Number 16. Page33. Christian J. Nelson, M.A., M.P.H., Barry J. Rosenfeld, Ph.D., William Breitbart, M.D., and Michele Galietta, M.A. (2002). Spirituality, Religion, and Depression in the Terminally Ill. Psychosomatics 43:213-220. Dervic, K., Oquendo, M., Grunebaum, M., Ellis, S., Burke, A., and Mann, J. (2004). Religious Affiliation and Suicide Attempt. Am J Psychiatry 161:2303-2308. Huguelet, P. M.D., Mohr, S. M.A., Borras, L M.D., Gillieron, C. Ph.D. Brandt, P. Ph.D. (2006). Spirituality and Religious Practices among Outpatients with Schizophrenia and Their Clinicians. Psychiatry Serve 57:366-372, doi: 0.1176/appi.ps.57.3.366 Loy, D. (1989). Comparing Zen Koan Practice with the Cloud of Unknowing. Buddhist-Christian Studies. 59 note 2. Lothstein LM: Book review, PS Richards, AE Bergin (Eds): Religion, Spirituality, and Spiritualism. Handbook of Psychotherapy and Religious Diversity. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159:883-885. Martin, Elmer Martin, J. (2004). Spirituality and the Black Helping Tradition in Social Work. Washington, D.C., National Association of Social Workers, 2002, 296 pages Psychiatry Serve 55:726-727. McColman, C. (2010). Four Dimensions of Christian Spirituality for Our Time. www.anamchara.com. Page, J. (2005). Spirituality versus Christianity. The Purple Pew. Silva, K. (2008). Christian Meditation as Common Ground. Am Missives. Research Papers on Christian View on SpiritualityComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenBringing Democracy to AfricaCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite ReligionHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementCapital PunishmentRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropeQuebec and Canada
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Get the Rules and Best Practices for Writing Paragraphs The definition of a paragraph: Its a group of closely related sentences that develops a central idea, conventionally beginning on a new line, which is sometimesÃ indented. The paragraph has been variously defined as a subdivision in a longer written passage, a group of sentences (or sometimes just one sentence) about a specific topic, and a grammatical unit typically consisting of multiple sentences that together express a complete thought. In his 2006 book A Dash of Style, Noah Lukeman describes the paragraph break as one of the most crucial marks in the punctuation world. Etymology:Ã Paragraph is from the Greek word which means to write beside. Observations A new paragraph is a wonderful thing. It lets you quietly change the rhythm, and it can be like a flash of lightning that shows the same landscape from a different aspect. (Babel, Isaac interviewed by Konstantin Paustovsky in Isaac Babel Talks About Writing, The Nation, March 31, 1969.) 10 Effective Paragraph Criteria Lois Laase and Joan Clemmons offer the following list of 10 helpful suggestions for writing paragraphs. This is adapted from their book, Helping Students Write... The Best Research Reports Ever: Easy Mini-Lessons, Strategies, and Creative Formats to Make Research Manageable and Fun. Keep the paragraph on one topic.Include a topic sentence.Use supporting sentences that give Ã¢â¬â¹details or facts about the topic.Include vivid words.Make sure it does not have run-on sentences.Include sentences that make sense and stick to the topic.Sentences should be in order and make sense.Write sentences that begin in different ways.Make sure the sentences flow.Be sure sentences are mechanically correct - spelling, punctuation, capitalization, indentation. Topic Sentences in Paragraphs Although the topic sentence is often the first sentence of the paragraph, it does not have to be. Furthermore, the topic sentence is sometimes restated or echoed at the end of the paragraph, although again it does not have to be. However, a well-phrased concluding sentence can emphasize the central idea of the paragraph as well as provide a nice balance and ending. A paragraph is not a constraining formula; in fact, it has variations. In some instances, for example, the topic sentence is not found in a single sentence. It may be the combination of two sentences, or it may be an easily understood but unwritten underlying idea that unifies the paragraph. Nevertheless, the paragraph in most college writing contains discussion supporting a stated topic sentence.... (Brandon, Lee. At a Glance: Paragraphs, 5th ed., Wadsworth, 2012.) Rules of Paragraphing As an advanced writer, you know that rules are made to be broken. But that is not to say that these rules are useless. Sometimes it is good to avoid a one-sentence paragraph - it can sound too brisk and implies a lack of penetration and analysis. Sometimes, or perhaps most of the time, it is good to have a topic sentence. But the awful fact is that when you look closely at a professional writers work, you will see that the topic sentence is often missing. In that case, we sometimes say it is implied, and perhaps that is true. But whether we want to call it implied or not, it is obvious that good writers can get along without topic sentences most of the time. Likewise, it is not a bad idea to develop only one idea in a paragraph, but frankly, the chance of developing several ideas often arises and sometimes doing so even characterizes the writing of professionals. (Jacobus, Lee A. Substance, Style, and Strategy, Oxford University Press, 1998.) Strunk and White on Paragraph Length In general, remember that paragraphing calls for a good eye as well as a logical mind. Enormous blocks of print look formidable to readers, who are often reluctant to tackle them. Therefore, breaking long paragraphs in two, even if it is not necessary to do so for sense, meaning, or logical development, is often a visual help. But remember, too, that firing off many short paragraphs in quick succession can be distracting. Paragraph breaks used only for show read like the writing of commerce or of display advertising. Moderation and a sense of order should be the main considerations in paragraphing. (Strunk, Jr., William and E.B. White, The Elements of Style, 3rd ed., Allyn Bacon, 1995.) Uses of One-Sentence Paragraphs Three situations in essay writing can occasion a one-sentence paragraph: (a) when you want to emphasize a crucial point that might otherwise be buried; (b) when you want to dramatize a transition from one stage in your argument to the next; and (c) when instinct tells you that your reader is tiring and would appreciate a mental rest. The one-sentence paragraph is a great device. You can italicize with it, vary your pace with it, lighten your voice with it, signpost your argument with it. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s potentially dangerous. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t overdo your dramatics. And be sure your sentence is strong enough to withstand the extra attention itÃ¢â¬â¢s bound to receive when set off by itself. Houseplants wilt in direct sun. Many sentences do as well. (Trimble, John R. Writing with Style: Conversations on the Art of Writing. Prentice Hall, 2000.) Paragraph Length in Business and Technical Writing A paragraph should be just long enough to deal adequately with the subject of its topic sentence. A new paragraph should begin whenever the subject changes significantly. A series of short, undeveloped paragraphs can indicate poor organization and sacrifice unity by breaking an idea into several pieces. A series of long paragraphs, however, can fail to provide the reader with manageable subdivisions of thought. Paragraph length should aid the readers understanding of idea. (Alred, Gerald J., Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oliu, The Business Writers Handbook, 10th ed., Bedford/St. Martins, 2012.) The Paragraph as a Device of Punctuation The paragraph is a device of punctuation. The indentation by which it is marked implies no more than an additional breathing space. Like the other marks of punctuation...it may be determined by logical, physical, or rhythmical needs. Logically it may be said to denote the full development of a single idea, and this indeed is the common definition of the paragraph. It is, however, in no way an adequate or helpful definition. (Read, Herbert. English Prose Style, Beacon, 1955.) Scott and Dennys Definition of a Paragraph A paragraph is a unit of discourse developing a single idea. It consists of a group or series of sentences closely related to one another and to the thought expressed by the whole group or series. Devoted, like the sentence, to the development of one topic, a good paragraph is also, like a good essay, a complete treatment in itself. (Scott, Fred Newton, and Joseph Villiers Denny, Paragraph-Writing: A Rhetoric for Colleges, rev. ed., Allyn and Bacon, 1909.) Development of the Paragraph in English The paragraph as we know it comes into something like settled shape in Sir William Temple (1628-1699). It was the product of perhaps five chief influences. First, the tradition, derived from the authors and scribes of the Middle Ages, that the paragraph-mark distinguishes a stadium of thought. Second, the Latin influence, which was rather towards disregarding the paragraph as the sign of anything but emphasis - the emphasis-tradition being also of medieval origin; the typical writers of the Latin influence are Hooker and Milton. Third, the natural genius of the Anglo-Saxon structure, favorable to the paragraph. Fourth, the beginnings of popular writing - of what may be called the oral style, or consideration for a relatively uncultivated audience. Fifth, the study of French prose, in this respect a late influence, allied in its results with the third and fourth influences. (Lewis, Herbert Edwin. The History of the English Paragraph, 1894.) 19c writers reduced the lengths of their paragraphs, a process that has continued in the 20c, particularly in journalism, advertisements, and publicity materials. (McArthur, Tom. Paragraph. The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press,Ã 1992.)
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Overcoming the Modern - Kawabata's 'Yukiguni' - Essay Example 246). A love affair between rich Tokyo dilettante, Shimamura, and a young geisha, Komako, is the main story of the novel. However, cultural symbolism interwoven in the plot of the story makes it look like a Japanese puzzle. It is both interesting to read and complex to understand all the meanings of writerÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural riddles. One has to be well aware of Japanese cultural nuances to accept KawabataÃ¢â¬â¢s book as easy reading of a love story. Romantic relationship is not the main idea the writer wants to express. There are much more issues of cultural identity which are raised in this literary work. To understand and appreciate KawabataÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"YukiguniÃ¢â¬ a reader has to be competent in Japanese culture and literature enough. Also difference in mentality and perceptions of Japanese and Western culture might influence on understanding KawabataÃ¢â¬â¢s work. There is no wonder in different interpretations of the main messagesÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning, because KawabataÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"characters are determined by forces so completely beyond their control that these characters typically appear to the Western reader almost pathologically passive and irresoluteÃ¢â¬ (Pollack, 102). At the same time, however, life and human relationships in different cultures are much alike. There is no wonder that a non-Japanese reader will associate himself/herself with Shimamura or Komato. Furthermore, most of KawabataÃ¢â¬â¢s works are claimed to be plotless. Reading Ã¢â¬Å"Snow CountryÃ¢â¬ requires some meditation and contemplation. Otherwise, the reader might lose not only interest, but complete understanding of the essence of this book. Having enough knowledge about Japan and its culture, one has to be able to read between the lines to understand Japaneseness of KawabataÃ¢â¬â¢s novel. According to Pollack, Japanese writerÃ¢â¬â¢s work is based on Tanabata legend (misfortunate astral lover who are
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Rights, Law and the History of Ideas - Essay Example I decided to pay special attention to works presented by Regan, Singer, and Francione because all of these animal rights theorists have always managed to present their approach concerning animal rights issue in a very engaging and unique manner. At some points, these philosophers even get purely judgmental about other intellectualsÃ¢â¬â¢ approaches and I felt that highlighting such judgments and arguments would help in getting the deeper flavor of the whole issue in a multidimensional manner. I basically tried searching most of the references from hard copies of books and peer-reviewed journals though I also took support of some credible websites about which I specially tried making sure that they contained valid and reviewed information. The books I referenced in the paper throw light on ReganÃ¢â¬â¢s and SingerÃ¢â¬â¢ works and I chose them because they help contrasting ReganÃ¢â¬â¢s approach from that of SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s. I also laid stress on books composed by Francione becau se his works help immensely in understanding the core ideology of animal liberation movement. ..
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Comparative Study of Common Vegetable Starches Essay ABSTRACT The purpose of this experiment is to be able to help the society with its environmental issues by creating biodegradable plastic out of common vegetable starches. Here, the The procedures that the researcher use in this investigatory project were all experimental and were based on Scientific Method. The researcher used environment-friendly materials which can be made into biodegradable plastics that will not harm the environment and will not add to pollution problems. Among th The result was found that the product exhibited the desirable properties of a biodegradable plastic thus the product is completely biodegradable at disposal. The researcher conclude that among the different vegetable starches, _____________ starch is the most effective raw material for the development of biodegradable plastics due to its availability in large quantity, its relatively low cost and its biodegradability. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study The ever unending problem of waste disposal specifically the non-biodegradable one had contributed to the alarming worldwide problem of global warming. As an example, the experience storm surge of the island of Leyte due to increase of sea level, increase of water level among streets during heavy rain due to clogged drains, canals and sewerage. Using vegetable starches in developing biodegradable plastic is one big step to lessen, if not total eliminate, our global concerns. Generally, this study is conducted to replace the conventional non-biodegradable plastics to a more friendly biodegradable plastics using different vegetable starches. The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. Commercial varieties can be 5 to 10 cm in diameter at the top, and around 15 cm to 30 cm long. A woody cordon runs along the roots axis. The flesh can be chalk-white or yellowish. Cassava roots are very rich in starch, and contain significant amounts of calcium (50 mg/100g), phosphorus (40 mg/100g) and vitamin C (25 mg/100g). However, they are poor in protein and other nutrients. In contrast, cassava leaves are a good source of protein, and are rich in the amino acid lysine, though deficient in methionine and possibly tryptophan. These components are components of biodegradable plastic. The squash The sweet potato B. Significance of the Study Once one of these vegetable starches known, this study will be very essential in the production of biodegradable plastics, which can lessen the tremendous piled up non-biodegradable garbages made by plastics thereby reducing harmÃ to our environment. C. Statement of the Problem The problem is to compare which among the different vegetables; squash, sweet potato and cassava, which are rich in starch will be an effective component for biodegradable plastic. D. Hypothesis Cassava starch is the most effective component for biodegradable plastic. E. Scope and limitations This study will be focused on the comparison of the three common vegetables, namely, the squash, principal variable of this project is the cassava starch. The locale of this project is it could help save the environment and reduce use of plastic that takes a lot of years to degrade. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The word plastic came from the Greek word plastikos, meaning capable of being molded. Plastics can be as hard as metal or as soft as silk. They can take any shape in almost any form due to the versatility of the carbon, the most common backbone of polymer chains. Plastics can be conveniently divided into two categories: semi-synthetic, in which the basic chain structure is derived from a natural product, such as cellulose; and synthetic, which is built up chemically from small units or monomers. Despite the various applications of plastics, drawbacks have been encountered in three major points. Firstly, there are certain chemicals used in the manufacture of .plastics that may cause allergic reactions. Three is a need man from these threat. Secondly, since cellulose films are biodegradable; they are readily attacked by bacteria. Films and packaging materials from synthetic polymers are normally attacked at a very low rate. New polymers such is nylon, polyvinyl chloride and Polystyrene have replaced cellulose, the pioneer plastic material. As a result, these plastic materials have become permanent wastes. There are various methods in making biodegradable plastics. The simplest is the production of plastic from the extraction of casein from milk. Casein is obtained in two ways by souring, with the use of lactic acid, arid by boiling together with an additive, such as acetic acid. Starch is a natural organic polymer manufactured by green plants through photosynthesis s to serve as metabolic reserve It occurs in the form of grains in many parts of the plant, principally in embryonic tissues such as seeds, fruits, roots and tubers. Polyvinyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, thermoplastic synthetic resin. It is usually used for grease-proofing paper, in adhesives, in gas- and oil-impervious films and Coatings. This substance, although soluble in water, is insoluble in Common organic solvents. Glycerol is the simplest trihydric alcohol. In commercial form, it is called glycerin. It is a colorless odorless and viscous liquid with a sweet taste. It is completely soluble in water and alcohol but is only slightly soluble in many common solvents, such as ether, ethyl acetate and dioxane. It is widely used in coatings and paints, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Plastic production is relatively new technology. Experiments are being conducted to relieve the negative effects of overproducing plastics. By changing its raw materials and additives, commercial plastic may be improved so that it will become degradable while retaining its good quality. Cassava (Manihot esculenta), also called manioc, tapioca or yuca, is one of the most important food crops in the humid tropics, being particularly suited to conditions of low nutrient availability and able to survive drought (Burrell, 2003). The plant grows to a height of 1 to 3 m and several roots may be found on each plant. Although cassava leaves are sometimes consumed, the major harvested organ is the tuber, which is actually a swollen root. The plant is propagated mostly from stem cuttings. A major limitation of cassava production is the rapid post-harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days (Okezie and Kosikowski, 1982). Cassava ranks very high among crops that convert the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area. Among the starchy staples, cassava gives a carbohydrate production which is about 40% higher than rice and 25% more than maize, with the result that cassava is the cheapest source of calories for both human nutrition and animal feeding. A typical composition of the cassava root isÃ moisture (70%), starch (24%), fiber (2%), protein (1%) and other substances including minerals (3%) Compared to other crops, cassava excels under suboptimal conditions, offering the possibility of using marginal land to increase total agricultural production (Cock, 1982). METHODOLOGY Cassava Tubers were ground and squeezed to extract its starch. Starch obtained was weighed and divided into three equal parts; 50 grams in trial 1, trial 2 and trial 3. T1, T2 and T3 also consisted of 50 ml Polyester resin and increasing variations of Polymer MEKP Hardener; 50 grams for T1, 100 grams for T2 and 150 grams in T3. The components in every treatment or trial were mixed, stirred and then poured in 3 different shirts with Petroleum Jelly and then sun-dried. Afterwards, different methods were used to test the effectivity of the plastic. T1, T2 and T3 were sun-dried but they did not look like a plastic at all. The researchers observed the product while waiting for it to dry but there were no signs of turning into a plastic. The Cassava starch was too thick and the researchers realized that it would not turn into a plastic because of its heavy weight and it would take more time before it would dry because of its thickness. After letting T1, T2 and T3 dry under the sun, it became hard. Although the researchers had unexpected results and the Cassava starch did not turn into plastic, studies have already proven that Cassava starch could be used for making various types of packaging products. Cassava is a promising raw material for the development of biodegradable plastics.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
In the following I intend to prove that the ontological argument is in and of itself, insufficient in proving that God exists. There are a few problems with the argument that I will be discussing in detail in an attempt to illustrate exactly why Ã¢â¬ËThe Ontological ArgumentÃ¢â¬â¢ is unsatisfactory. The Definition of Ã¢â¬ËGreaterÃ¢â¬â¢ St. Anselm of Canterbury defined God as Ã¢â¬Å"that-than-which-a-greater-cannot-be-thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Bailey, 2002). The problem with this definition is that the term Ã¢â¬ËgreaterÃ¢â¬â¢ is surely up for interpretation. The term Ã¢â¬ËgreaterÃ¢â¬â¢ requires a comparison between itself and one or more things, which could pose a problem for AnselmÃ¢â¬â¢s argument; however Professor Thorp states that the only difference between these two things is that one exists in the mind, while the other exists in the mind and in reality. If we understand that a God that exists in the mind and in reality is greater than one that merely exists in the mind then we must understand that God exists. We need to examine this, however, much more closely to discover the problem with this statement; and I will do so using an example given to us by Professor Thorp. During the discussion of the Ontological argument, the professor asked us whether we would prefer Ã¢â¬Ëa real beerÃ¢â¬â¢ on a hot day, or Ã¢â¬Ëan imaginary beerÃ¢â¬â¢. The real one is preferable and it is greater than the imaginary one. But what type of beer was each person in the class imagining? There are multiple brands of beer available and it is quite possible that many people throughout the room were picturing a different beer. Which real beer was greater? This is not a question that I can answer because it lies in a matter of preference. We experience a similar problem when we think of Ã¢â¬Ëa real GodÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬Ëan imaginary GodÃ¢â¬â¢. Perhaps I perceive God in a specific way, and to me, he is a being Ã¢â¬Å"that-than-which-none-greater-can-be-thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Bailey, 2002). This proves that my perception of God exists for me, but what of everyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of God? We must recognize a problem with this, in that everyone may perceive a Ã¢â¬ËgreaterÃ¢â¬â¢ God in a very different way. We know that there are different perceptions of the Ã¢â¬ËgreaterÃ¢â¬â¢ God because we have evidence of it in the various religions and the contrasting views of their God. With this in mind, all Anselm is able to prove with his argument is that every personÃ¢â¬â¢s individual perception of God does exist, but no on... ...comprehend or imagine Him. Because of this, God cannot be Ã¢â¬ËthoughtÃ¢â¬â¢, he can merely be defined as infinite. Since we cannot comprehend God in our thought, he no longer exists in our minds as an entity, but merely as a definition. Thus, since he no longer exists in our minds, there is no obligation to understand that he must exist in reality; an implication made in AnselmÃ¢â¬â¢s argument. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã AnselmÃ¢â¬â¢s Ontological argument is insufficient in proving that God exists. For the reasons above and further objections from various philosophers, I do not believe that Anselm can argue the existence of God with his current premises as they stand. I must say that despite my objections to AnselmÃ¢â¬â¢s Ontological argument, I respect his work done, and the tremendous thought process that must have occurred to conjure up such a case as was presented. It is definitely much easier to prove a mortal wrong than it is to prove the existence of something so great and so unknown. AnselmÃ¢â¬â¢s Ontological argument while intriguing does have some problems in my opinion that take away from its validity; but needless to say it is in and of itself quite astounding.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Discuss ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s poetic methods in presenting evil in the pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s prologue and tale in the light of this comment.Ã In ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s time, the nature of evil related to any committing of the 7 deadly sins, consisting of greed, pride, blasphemy, sloth, avarice, wrath, lust and envy. The pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s prologue and tale is comprised of many of these sins, the pardoner himself demonstrating the majority. Other characters, such as the 3 rioters also embody many of these sins. This essay will explore these characters as well as their evil natures and formulate an opinion how Chaucer presents evil in the pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s prologue and tale. The pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s evil nature is initiated from his physical description in the general prologue. He is described as having hair as yelow as wex and hood we wered noon Ã¢â¬â a description immediately illustrating him as a rule breaker, as for most clergymen it was assumed they would cover their hair. In addition to this, he is described as having such glaryng eyen. In the medieval times, this amounted to the suggestion of evil; therefore, Chaucer has constructed the pardoner in such a way to ambiguously imply he may be somewhat evil. Critics, such as Spearing, have noted that the pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s repellent outer appearance reflects his inner corruption. The description of his fake relics, such as the sayle that saint peter hadde and oure lady veyl are used to demonstrate his evil intentions; taking advantage of the peasantsÃ¢â¬â¢ good faith by tricking them into buying fake relics, that are nothing more than pigges bones. From the onset, Chaucer has incorporated the theme of evil within the pardoner and has maintained this throughout the prologue and tale. The prologue outlines the pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s admittance to his evil nature, and suggests he may even be proud of this. He boldly states that his sermons are constructed around the well-known Latin biblical phrase, radix malorum est cupiditas Ã¢â¬â loosely translated as Ã¢â¬Ëgreed is the root of all evilÃ¢â¬â¢. The missing word omnium from this is used to demonstrate his lack of biblical knowledge, which is emphasised by the repititon of this phrase throughout. In medieval times, it was common and often expected, for members of the church to know and practice in Latin. The pardoner admits to using pieces of Latin to saffron my predicacioun. This cooking imagery may suggest that he only uses Latin to reinforce his false position, and therefore highlighting his evil nature, and may relate to the sin of gluttony as he is referencing food, again reinforcing the evilness of his character. The pardoner states in the prologue, in the form of a confession, that he preche of no thyng but for coveityse. The repetition of this ironic language along with the shocking imagery that is portrayed through his rhetorical question will I live in poverte willfully? and his admittance to taking money from the povereste widye in the village paints an evil picture of the pardoner who is merely driven by greed. Some critics, such as Georgianna believe in the historical school of thought, and note that the pardoner is merely a vehicle for the substantial embodiment of the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s abusement. It has been suggested and argued amongst several other critics that Chaucer had no other motive when constructing the pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s character other than to criticize and highlight the wrongdoings of the medieval church. Many fake pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s lived amongst the medieval audience, and carried out the same evil methods as the pardoner, all for the same motive; greed. As a result of this, anticlericalism grew popular amongst the peasantÃ¢â¬â¢s very quickly. Therefore, it can be suggested that the pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s character was constructed in such a way to shine light on his evil nature and to draw parallels with the medieval church. The pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s tale is a sermon against four particular sins; gluttony, blasphemy, gambling and drinking. He talks at length of each of these particular sins, giving biblical examples that he has twisted to his benefit, such as Adam and also his wyfe who were dryven for that vice. The pardoner is suggesting that gluttony was the downfall of Adam and Eve, when in fact it was temptation. To sermonize against drinking is massively ironic as the pardoner has admitted to needing a draughte before being able to think of a moral tale to tell the pilgrims Ã¢â¬â irony in itself seeing as he should not have to think about a tale of morality. The fact that the pardoner is guilty of committing the very sins he preaches about only adds to his evil nature. Many critics, such as Ruth Nevo, suggest that the pardoner is a character in his own tale that he tells. The novelle that the Pardoner tells the pilgrims consist of three rioters. He begins by stating the setting of the three men; in the develes temple Ã¢â¬â metaphorical for a tavern. The three rioters are established as sinners from the very beginning, already being guilty of committing two of the seven deadly sins; drinking and blaspheming. The repeated suggestion of a brotherhood and addressing each other as brethren has underlying irony as each rioter is ultimately killed by each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s greed. It has been suggested that as the rioters are not named, and therefore are nt personally addressed, that they have been constructed to suggest the embodiment of sin. Their deaths are quick and do not have much effect; instead, the focus is on the sins that they do commit. This stresses that their evil natures are what caused their own deaths. However, it can be argued that although the pardoner presents evil in the pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s prologue and tale, the fact that he acknowledges this suggests he is fully aware of his evil nature. Koff suggests that the pardoner is not so much evil as he is bold. This can be argued to an extent, as he does admit to being a ful vicious man, yet states that a morale tale yet I yew telle kan. This can be portrayed as being ironic, as he is fully aware of his evil nature, yet still believes that he can preach against the sins he so readily admits to committing. In addition to this, Chaucer does incorporate some good nature into the novelle in the form of the old man. It has long been questioned as to whether he is the personification of death himself, and therefore cannot die, or whether he is merely an instrument used to emphasise the evil nature of the three rioters. His addressing of the three rioters as sires in comparison to the rude greetings of the rioters compares and relates age and innocence; the old man may have been faithful during his lifetime and therefore God will not take his life. In contrast, the young sinful rioters quickly come to their death through their own lack of faith. To conclude, I believe that a Ã¢â¬Ësinister exploration of evilÃ¢â¬â¢ is truly presented in the pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s prologue and tale. Chaucer uses characterization of the pardoner and three rioters to present how corrupt medieval society was, as well as how readily sins were committed. The pardonerÃ¢â¬â¢s simile of as dooth a dowve sittynge on a berne to describe how he sees himself is used as an antithesis of his own character; as a dove carries religious connotations of peace and purity; the opposite to what the pardoner is. Despite infiltrating some holy and pure characters, such as the Old man, he only further emphasises the lack of good in the other characters. Overall, Chaucer constructs the prologue and tale in such a way to present several layers of evil in the Canterbury tales.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
It is quite interesting to note that, academic research in business ethics was a totally distinct discipline from research in corporate governance, and the application of the word Ã¢â¬Ëethics' was uncommon in available research on corporate governance. The chief responsibility of corporate governance was understood to be safeguarding the benefits of the shareholders. Because of the severance between ownership and management, and the incapability of the independent owners to supervise the performances of those managers, a possibility was available for vital strategic decisions to be taken which would advantageous for the managers to a more larger extent compared to the owners. For example, takeovers not related to the organization's core competence outcome in a bigger corporation, however, it does not result in a more profitable company all the time. Certainly, research has proved that extremely increased extent of isolated diversification normally resulted in lower profits. (Corporate Governance and Ethics) Till the greater part of 1990s, nevertheless, remuneration of executives was normally settled to a greater degree by the magnitude of the company compared to by what profits the company is earning. Therefore, unconnected takeovers will openly and instantly be advantageous for the upper-level managers, however may really be unfavorable in case of the stockholders. In the latter part of 1980s and initial stages of 1990s, when numerous mid and lower ranked employees in America were trimmed down, huge remuneration of the CEOs and the application of other methods which exclusively are advantageous to top level managers started to be talked about in greater detail and also in non-business news publications. Even in this present era, Fortune, Business Week, and The Wall Street Journal report about the yearly surveys of remuneration of CEOs and bonuses. The matters which are normally implicated as the active crusade of the shareholder which started during the 1990s, which culminated in increased appreciation on the part of the investors regarding good corporate governance. In case the citizens might lose confidence in the business due to extensive substandard corporate governance, the outcome could be that the common investor will search for scope other than the stock market. Episodes, in the bygone few years have displayed that an existence has been found about a deep bonding between business ethics and corporate governance. The activities of a company's top executives impact the lives of several people, not merely shareholders. The arena of corporate governance is appreciating that it is stakeholders, not merely shareholders, whose privileges should be safeguarded. (Corporate Governance and Ethics) The position of U. S. corporations was a vital point in time in which a growing amount of scams have impaired their standing as socially accountable entities. (Center for Corporate Governance and Ethics) The Enron debacle has impacted not just the assets of its shareholders, but also even the fate of its staff, and also the Houston community in which it was situated. The domino effects of Enron, Arthur Andersen, Tyco, and other scandals at high places are witnessed presently in the stock market, our country and the employment prospects of our fresh graduates passing out of colleges, and maybe the most enduring in its detriment Ã¢â¬â in public skepticism, disbelief, and antipathy with the business community. (Corporate Governance and Ethics) The trust among investors was at its nadir, leading in persistent confusion in the financial markets and a smothering of economic turnaround. Center for Corporate Governance and Ethics) Considerable sums of invested monies vanished because of accusations of misappropriation at the corporate level and misuse at the internal level. The accusations of scams and a broad discernment of doubt and indecision were unswervingly hindering the capability of enterprises to fight, create fresh jobs and better our economy. (Corporate Governance: Codes of Ethics to Guide Corporate Conduct) Overseas investors were taking a cautious approach prior to feeling certain that their investments are secure with the U. S. companies. (Center for Corporate Governance and Ethics) The question remains whether an encouraging result is present of these latest episodes. Efficient corporate governance is something which is based on a fundamental set of ethical principles which steer the actions of the company, regarding the decision to launch a new product or collect new capital. It sets up a scaffold for efficiently evaluating risk and finding out and preventing scam and misuse by the internal employees of the corporate. I believe that some of the encouraging results of these latest episodes are which the common American is very aware in the present era regarding corporate governance -although the word is not used by them. I consider that we will be witnessing that in the coming years, communities will expect ethical behavior from companies, be resolute that corporate governance show the commendable values of the company, and that the society reward the people who are idols of excellence and penalize those who flout their wishes. Moreover, I expect that each one of is more aware that ethics is an extremely compelling component of any business proportion. (Corporate Governance and Ethics) There is a universal consensus by the management, regulators, and investor regarding the urgency of a heightened importance on ethics and a better examination of business governance. Endeavors are currently concentrated on developing organizational structures and a legal structure of confirmation and maintaining equilibrium, which are just, ethical, although typified by economic competence. Understanding the enlarged urgency for modifiable management practices and governance systems to bring back confidence in the securities market, the U. S. Congress enacted the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Through the provisions of the Act, it was made compulsory for setting up of separate corporate Board of Directors, establishment of independent audit and nomination committees, and solving of disagreement of interest among the management and other stakeholders in firms, denotes necessity of separate auditors, and accords more rigorous accounting information disclosure norms. Latest and proposed Securities and Exchange Commission rules are there, national stock exchange listing needs, and across the board fresh acts that passed by both sides of Congress, accented by President Bush, building new structures for the governance of the accounting industry as also enticement to manage deception in the shape of strict punishments for corporate delinquency. Even though these needs are mostly aimed at publicly traded businesses and other government controlled industries, these novel regulations must cause management and Boards of Directors, regardless of public or privately held businesses to heed to the demand for corporate reform earnestly by setting up or once again finding out their code of ethics of the company. Corporate Governance: Codes of Ethics to Guide Corporate Conduct) The indecisive efficacy of any fresh regulatory code; its possible expenses of implementation, and the restrictions of automatic remedial market mechanisms, call for building of institutions which ease the realization and execution of the law efficiently and in planned fortitude. These types of institutions must even suggest pioneering governance practices and build increasing apparent and easily supervised codes of ethics together with stringent disclosure needs. Center for Corporate Governance and Ethics) Return on equity is very crucial, but at the same time performing business without restoring to short-cuts is also important. Shareholders activism is important, but at the same time eagerness by the shareholders to allow management to perform its duty is also vital. Cautious notice to firm rules and methods is valuable, but concurrently is the capability to be resilient and keen to change long-standing regulations and processes. Permitting a company to gain from the network of acquaintances of staff is vital, however side by side is averting of circumstances wherein people believe that the company's decisions are arrived not on the merits, rather depending on the basis of contacts. (Ethics and Corporate Governance: Is There One Best Way? ) Every profitable enterprise wants to flourish and therefore require skilled senior management. But skilled management never implies that that sole decisive factor is awareness regarding the functioning of the business and the capability to augment earnings, growth and profits. Competent management must even instill a custom of truthfulness and ethical conduct. The Board of Directors and management must fix a right ethical pretext in case of every employee, across the hierarchy of the organization. An efficient code of ethics or code of conduct is something which is espoused by the Board of Directors and routinely evaluated and reinstated by the Board. A Code of Ethics must fix the values of the company like the leadership, responsibility, honesty, and dedication and it is not the end of it. (Corporate Governance: Codes of Ethics to Guide Corporate Conduct) In case of beginners, codes of conduct must deal with working conditions, personnel enrichment and training, and disagreements of interest. In order to be genuinely effectual, a code of ethics must be included into employee training across the company and used as an instrument for assisting worker feeling on expected conduct. It must be supervised at every stage to find out if the ideals are really executed across the company. A lot of companies with ethics programs have persisted to sustain hue legal cost for litigation based on unethical conduct of its employees due to gaps in supervising and implementing an ethical code of conduct. The ongoing engagement of every staff as also service by Board members must partly be resolved by every person espousing, enforcing and behaving themselves as per a suitable ethical code of conduct. (Corporate Governance: Codes of Ethics to Guide Corporate Conduct) To conclude, corporate governance guidelines and ethics are developing fast. Investors are calling for increased standards as also other stakeholders. Those companies who do not possess appropriate corporate governance and ethics processes endanger themselves to serious harm to their standing, criminal/ legal action and authoritarian punishments.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Gang violence in Brazil Favelas Case This paper involves a description of the situation of gang violence in Brazil Rio de Janeiro Favelas. It also analyzes the growth of Favelas since 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s with a link to the debt crisis, economic transition and neo-liberalism reforms which have taken place in Brazil since then. The paper also brings forward the factors that have contributed to the rise of gang violence in Favelas.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Gang violence in Brazil: Favelas Case specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It also involves a research on the response of the government to the gang violence. Additionally, it brings forward the issues that have risen as a result of failure within government institutions. Such failures include instability and lack of democracy in these government institutions. These failures have made it hard to deal with the gang violence in the Favelas. This paper also proposes policies to be put in place to ensure t hat gang violence in Favelas is eradicated as a way of ensuring safe living in the shanty town (Perlman, 2009). Favelas is one of the largest slum areas in Rio de Janeiro Brazil. The slum area has a population of about one million people which is 20% of the Rio de Janeiro population (Vanden Gary, 2011). The inhabitants are mainly low income earners and job seekers who are new migrants into the city. There has been growing violence in the slum area which has largely been contributed by drug dealers. The dealers have turned for refuge in the slums since they see the area as a safer place without government interruptions. The gangs recruit the slum dwellers into the drug business where they use them as sales and delivery men. The violence has risen as these rival drug dealers gangs fight for control over the area. The violence has also resulted from the government forces, mainly the police, as they fight the drug dealers a situation which results into shoot outs between the two groups . Gang violence in Rio Favelas is growing day by day. Since the period of 1980-1990 to today, Favelas has grown to be one of the major insecure places in Rio de Janeiro. This has been on the increase due to the increase in population and lack of employment mainly among the youths. The control of the area has mainly been by the drug cartels that use the area as a centre for business where their shipments are received.Advertising Looking for term paper on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The rival drug cartels engage in shoot outs where they leave many innocent residents dead and their homes destroyed. The gangs control the police in the area in such a way that, the police have become corrupt because of their low pay and they receive bribes from the drug dealers to let them do their business freely. The other government forces have not solved the violence caused by the drug dealers. When the forces g et into Favelas, they are in a mission to fight with drug dealers, but they end up killing and shooting innocent residents going about their daily businesses. According to Perlman (2009), the reason behind the gang violence can be attributed to what he calls ingredients. The area has been discriminated by government agencies in that, there is no protection offered by the government in form of security. The discrimination is evident in the fact that, it took a series of decades for the Favelas to be included in the city maps. The residents have been subject to police harassment and mistreatment because they are treated as suspects. The topography of the area makes it an ideal hiding place for the gangs and other criminals. Neo-liberalism led to introduction of free trade, which led to, minimized trade restriction. Free trade meant goods would enter and leave Brazil without much hindrance. This led to importation and exportation of drugs by the drug cartels. The neoliberal policies ha ve also led to rural urban migration, which results to high levels of unemployment and leads the youths into the drug business. The presence of the high priced illegal commodity, the cocaine, has turned Favelas into a repackaging place. Favelas is used by the drug cartel for repackaging and redistribution of the drug to other parts of the world. This is due to the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s proximity to the harbor. The cocaine causes rivalry among drug cartels as they fight to have large shares in the market. The increased volume of cargo transit, which is as a result of liberalization and globalization, makes it easier for drug traffickers to hide materials in all modes of transport during import and export. This makes the FavelasÃ¢â¬â¢ residents vulnerable both to the forces and to the drug dealers.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Gang violence in Brazil: Favelas Case specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The gang violence started way back in 1969 when the government placed political prisoners together in Ilha Grande prison. All the prisoners had a poor background and came from Favelas. They united to form a gang group but then government realized and separated them to different prisons where they further spread their gospel. After they left prison, the prisoners formed a group called Commando Vermelho (Red command or CV). These gangs and individuals engage in wars for the control of gangs and the market. The violence is characterized by use of sophisticated weaponry which has resulted from active arms trade. The gangs have gained access to highly rated weapons such as military based automatic and semiautomatic weapons which include AK47, MD2, FN FAL military assault rivals. This has made the drug dealers better equipped than the police a factor that has worsened the fight against drugs and violence. The fight between the police and the gangs has led into the death of many innocent residents who get caught in the ambush (Perlman, 2009). The return of democracy in Brazil led to the introduction of debt crisis management where the government required citizens to pay taxes. This in turn resulted into increased crime as a way of getting an immediate source of income among the poor slum dwellers. The gangÃ¢â¬â¢s access to drugs has been enabled by the introduction of neo-liberalism where trade was made free. The countries boarders were opened to foreign traders a move that allowed entrance of harmful goods such as weapons. The violence has been so much in the Favelas that some residents have opted to flee the area for safety. The gangs have continued to harass the residents by forcefully recruiting them into the drug. This has increased fear among the residents who have no one to turn to for protection. There are many factors which have led to the rise of the gang violence. Unemployment is one of the major causes of this violence. The largest numbers of youths who engage in this d rug trafficking business do it because they do not have any other source of employment.Advertising Looking for term paper on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Discrimination on color basis has a major role to play in this case in such a way that, many of the Favelas residents are blacks, and hence are discriminated when it comes to employment. They are also discriminated because they come from Favelas where there is a lot of poverty. According to Skidmore (2009), many young men do not engage gang violence because they want to, but because they have families to provide for and this seem to be the only source of income and employment. Socioeconomic factors are also attributed to the violence in RioÃ¢â¬â¢s Favelas. The residents see the gangs as saviors because they provide social services such as employment and security which the government fails to provide. The government has discriminated the Favelas when it comes to the provision of basis services. This forces the residents to dig deep into their pockets to ensure they have such services that also include health services. The government also imposes high taxes on the citizens to sustai n its budget and settle its international debt. With this, the unemployed turn to the drug cartels where they seek employment and have high salaries. The social marginalization of the residents is another significant contributor to the violence. The residents are discriminated against because of their status and, therefore, to fight this discrimination they turn to drug business where they feel wanted and useful. Additionally, the residents do not feel as a part of the country and government. As a form of rebellion and away to t back at the government, the residents have been found to engage in criminal acts such as drug trafficking. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to eradicate the criminal acts have in most times failed. Poor access to education is another factor which has contributed to this violence. Many youths do not have access to quality education due to the high charges. This leads to a high number of school drop outs and in turn increases the unemployment level. The drop ou ts as an alternative turn to drug cartels for employment which does not require any education. Others engage in the drug trafficking because education is expensive and they have to provide their children with quality education. The governments response to the violence has not been a success to a certain extent. The Government had implemented a multi-million project to upgrade and eradicate the slums as a response to the violence. This however, received a lot of opposition from residents who could not afford the houses the government was providing. The government also suffered from limited funds, which so the collapse of the project while still in its first phase. The project was too expensive for the government to handle and the residents were not set to move to the new houses provided by the government. This meant the government had to think of a better way to solve the violence problem (Maria, 2003). Over the years, the government has tried now and again to drive the residents out of the Favelas. This has led to a lot of opposition since they have nowhere to go and can not afford better houses. The residents cry for the government to provide security and better social amenities has not been heard. The government has unveiled a project to provide better housing, sewerage system, healthcare and transport. The project also aims at providing security at four violence hotspots in the Favelas slum (Vanden Gary, 2011). The instability of government institutions has majorly contributed to this violence. The police accept bribes from the drug gangs to allow for the smooth operation of the gangs. This is as a result of poor pay meaning that they have o seek alternative means to acquire money. The military instead of providing the required security to the residents extort money from them and further threatens them with death. The government institutions also prove to be ineffective in that, cocaine gains entrance into the country through the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s borders a nd yet they have forces guarding their territory (Skidmore, 2009). The government itself has failed in proving security in such areas as Favelas by employing few police officers and other armed forces. In most cases, officers are posted to the areas government feel pertinent to them. The government institutions have also discriminated such areas by not providing the required services to the residents. The implication in the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s service provision is that, it serves only the wealthy and powerful. The government forces in Favelas are poorly equipped as compared to the drug gangs who have money enough to purchase powerful weapons (Foweraker, Landman Harvey, 2003). This implies that the forces are not in capacity to fight with the gangs. The government has failed in monitoring the trade in the region, hence an increased access to powerful weapons from the neighboring countries by the gangs. There is also failure at the ports and other transport terminus as they do not ta ke measures to eradicate drugs and weapons business. The government should strengthen its institutions so as to be able to fight the increased violence as well as drug trafficking (Maria, 1999). The government limits the rights of the residents by failing to provide them with main necessities. This forces the residents to find other alternatives to the problem. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to provide residents with the necessary services forces them to engage in illegal activities which will earn them money or provide the necessities. The main threat to the residents is security and frequent harassment and mistreatment by the government forces. The restoration of democracy led to the introduction of liberalism which meant people were free to do trading (Foweraker et al., 2003). This meant that goods would move in and out of the country. This free trade has led to entry of weapons and cocaine in the country, and has limited the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s power to fight with illegal trade s such as that of weapons and drugs (Maria, 2003). In conclusion, gang violence has been a serious threat to the security of Favelas residents and the country as whole. The violence has mainly affected the innocent residents who are in no way gang members or drug dealers (Vanden Gary, 2011). The violence has mainly increased due to the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s failure; hence the government should work towards improvement of its policies towards Favelas. It should works towards improvement of employment services. This should be done in such a way that there is fairness in selection when it comes to employment meaning there is no discrimination. This will help the youths from the slum areas to have a fair chance of getting into the job field (Perlman, 2009). The government should also carry out reforms in the forces which will restrict them from harassing and mistreating innocent citizens and extorting money from them. The reforms should also include a pay rise to all forces, and the poli ce to ensure that they have enough. This will in turn help in eradicating bribery and ensuring equal and effective service to all. The government should increase the number of recruits into the forces to ensure that the police are enough in number to cater for the whole country. It should engage in talk with the gangs. The negotiations will reduce on the excessive force by both the gangs and government forces. This will also reduce on the deaths that arise from the shoot outs. The government should also monitor all the goods that gain entry and that exit the country to reduce and eradicate the trade of illegal and harmful goods such as cocaine and weapons (Maria, 2003). Additionally, it should provide better services especially education which will help in dealing with the increased rate of school dropout cases among the youths. This will ensure that no youths are dropping out of school due lack of school fees or lack of schools. It should also provide alternative housing to the res idents of the Favelas. The houses should also be affordable. The government should put all the recommendations in place so as to achieve success in the fight against drug dealers violence. This will ensure that no ill treatment is given innocent citizens (Richards, 2011). The government should revise its neoliberal policies to ensure that, no harmful products enter or leave the country. This will eliminate or reduce both drug trafficking and gang violence. References Foweraker, J. Landman, T., Harvey N. 2003. Governing Latin America. New York: Polity. Maria, C. 1999. Human insecurity. New York: Oxford University Press. Maria, C. 2003. Child of the dark. Diary of Carolina Maria de Jesus. USA: Signet classics. Perlman, J. 2009. Favela: Four year of living on the edge in Rio de Janeiro. New York: Oxford University Press. Richards, D. 2011. Capital Class: The political Economy of Neo-Liberal reforms in Latin America: Critical Appraisal. New York: Conference of Socialists. Skidmore, T. 2009. Modern Latin America. New York: Oxford University Press. Vanden, H. Gary, P. 2011. Politics of the Latin America: the game power. New York: Oxford University Press.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
How to use subheads How to use subheads Its not always true that your readers will want to read everything youve written particularly if its a 300-page document. Even if youve done all you can to break it up and make it as readable as possible, the demands of time we all face may mean they can only skim it. At the risk of stating the obvious, subheads can signal to your reader what linked paragraphs are about and help them to navigate through more easily to the most relevant parts. But they should say more than just Introduction or Part 1. Make them explicit instead. So 40 years in the business is better than Our experience. Combined, they should tell the story, working as an alternative summary. This means theyll also help you to check back over your own route: did you pick the best way? Transition words (so, however, on the other hand, nevertheless, moreover, furthermore etc.) also signpost meaning to your reader, helping them to understand your points and stay with you through your changes of direction as you motor towards your conclusion. Be careful though: endless moreovers and furthermores can be tedious and wont stitch a loose collection of random thoughts into a compelling argument, no matter how many you use. Far better to plan first and work out a logical structure even before you touch your keyboard. There are more writing tips like this in our 60-page style guide, The Write Stuff. To find out more, click here. Or to get a complimentary copy, simply use our contact form and select style guide from the drop-down menu.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Interventions Heart Disease- Malaysia - Essay Example According to the Malaysian National Census data, the demographic pattern of Malaysia was found to be rapidly changing, with the rural population speedily decreasing. Thus, the data indicated that the distribution of the Malaysian population by the year 2000 was 40.4 % as rural population and 59.6% comprising of the urban population (Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2009). In this respect, there has been a drastic change in the health state of Malaysia, where the non-communicable diseases have rapidly increased as the major causes of death compared to the communicable diseases (Anand, et al. 2008). Thus, the rapid change in the social geographical setting from the rural-based population to a more urban-based population serves as one of the major factors influencing the rate and geographical distribution of heart disease in Malaysia (Chia & Srinivas, 2009). The social demographic patterns have indicated that there has been a rapid change of lifestyle in this country courtesy of urbanization, resulting to the increase of the heart disease risk factors, such as obesity. Statistics have indicated that the rate of obesity in Malaysia has tripled within the decade closing the 20th century, with the obesity rate registered in the country increasing from 4.4% in 1996 to 14% in 206 (Department of Statistics Malaysia 2009). Further, the health data statistics have also indicated that the rate of hypertension has increased from 33% to 43% in the same period, while the rate of diabetes mellitus has been found to have doubled for the same period. Another aspect of the lifestyle change is the rise in the rate of tobacco use in the urban areas of Malaysia, where hypertension has also been observed to have the highest rate of prevalence (Chia & Srinivas, 2009). Thus, following this geographical and social lifestyle transformation, the ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular